Are you tired and don’t feel like doing anything? These could be symptoms of pre-diabetes! Be sure to check your blood glucose levels, as long-term disturbances in blood sugar levels lead to the development of diabetes with its serious complications. Find out what symptoms may indicate the development of pre-diabetes.
What is pre-diabetes?
Pre-diabetes is a disorder that signals that the level of glucose in your blood is abnormal. If left untreated, it most often leads to the development of type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, it is often underestimated by doctors, which contributes to the increased incidence of this disease. Pre-diabetes symptoms are alarm signals to change your lifestyle and take care of your health.
Currently, there are no clear guidelines on the precise criteria for diagnosing this disorder. Pre-diabetes is defined as a situation where the blood glucose concentration is :
- fasting – 100-125 mg / dl,
- 60 minutes after oral glucose load (OGTT) – approx. 155 mg / dL,
- 120 minutes after an oral glucose load – 140-199 mg / dL.
It is estimated that 5-10 percent. people with pre-diabetes will develop diabetes mellitus in just one year.
Long-term disturbances in blood glucose levels can significantly affect the well-being and increase the risk of developing not only diabetes, but also cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke. So it’s good to know how to recognize them.
How to detect pre-diabetes?
Pre-diabetes before the onset of “overt” diabetes may be very different for each person. Many doctors recommend the following tests to make an accurate diagnosis:
- fasting glucose
- OGGT, or glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load,
- glycosylated hemoglobin , or HbA1C.
The causes of the development of pre-diabetes
The disorders that lead to the development of diabetes are mainly the result of unhealthy habits and lifestyle.
he main factors influencing the development of pre-diabetes include:
- overweight and obesity,
- lack of physical activity,
- high-calorie diet rich in highly processed products,
- abdominal obesity – waist circumference over 80 cm in women or 94 cm in men,
- the occurrence of gestational diabetes,
- having a child weighing more than 4 kg,
- reduced HDL cholesterol below 40 mg / dl,
- increased levels of triglycerides in the blood above 150 mg / dl,
- genetic predisposition (diabetes in parents),
- Polycystic ovary syndrome.
To reduce excess body weight, waist circumference and normalize blood sugar levels, it is recommended to change your eating behavior and introduce regular, moderate-intensity physical activity.
Pre-diabetes treatment – how to protect yourself against the development of diabetes?
Prevention of pre-diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes. Its main elements are a balanced diet and moderate physical activity. Regular exercise helps to strengthen the body and effectively reduce body fat.
As Finnish scientists observed, weight loss by 5 percent. and moderate physical activity for 35-45 minutes a day can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by up to 75 percent.
In the prevention of diabetes, it is also necessary to change the diet. A balanced diet should provide all the necessary nutrients. In the case of obesity, it is recommended to reduce body weight gradually, by reducing the caloric value of the diet by about 500 kcal per day.
According to the Nurses’ Health Study, a weight loss of 5 kg in people with a predisposition to diabetes reduces the risk of its development by up to 50 percent.
What does the diet look like in the prevention of diabetes? First of all, it should be a balanced menu containing whole grains, which are a source of dietary fiber – incl. rye, wholemeal or graham bread, coarse grains, brown rice, wholemeal pasta. The menu must also include fruit and vegetables in the amount of at least 400 g per day, 3/4 of which should be vegetables.
However, it is worth eliminating from the diet:
- simple carbohydrates such as sugar (sweets, confectionery, etc.),
- fried and fast food dishes,
- sweetened drinks
- fried meat, especially in deep fat.
- If lifestyle changes are not sufficient, your doctor may decide to initiate drug treatment.
- Usually, the drug of first choice is metformin, which makes cells more sensitive to insulin and
- lowers blood sugar.